Types of Sculpture
Freestanding sculpture - that is, sculpture that is carved or modeled fully in the round -
is made by either of two methods.
One type is modeling, an additive process using soft materials such as
plaster, clay or wax. Since the materials are not very durable, they are usually cast in a
more lasting medium; anything that can be poured including molten metal, cement, even
plastic. Modeling encourages open forms with the aid of metal armatures to support their
extension into space.
Carving is the very opposite of modeling. It is a subtractive process that starts with a
solid block, usually stone, which is highly resistant to the sculptor’s chisel. The
brittleness of stone and the difficulty of cutting it tend to result in the compact, closed
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