A matrix is a set of numbers arranged in rows and columns so as to form a rectangular
array. The numbers are called the elements, or entries, of the matrix.
If there are m rows and n columns, the matrix is said to be an m by n matrix, written
m x n. A matrix with n rows and n columns is called a square matrix of order n. An
ordinary number can be regarded as a 1 x 1 matrix.
Two matrices A and B are equal to one another if they possess the same number of rows
and the same number of columns, and their corresponding entries are the same.
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